What is VK?

What are the essentials of Vinyasa Krama that we teach?
1) Do asanas with a number of vinyasas, or variations, in succession. It is the art form of yoga practice. Vinyasa means art, and it involves aesthetic variation within the specified parameters.
2) The basic parameters used in Vinyasa Krama are steadiness of the posture, a calm mind, synchronizing the breath with slow movement of the limbs, and while in the postures, having the mind closely following the breath.

Why practice Vinyasa Krama yoga?

To quote Sri Ramaswami: "Vinyasa Krama Yoga is an ancient practice of physical and spiritual development. It is a systematic method to study, practice, teach and adapt yoga. This Vinyasa Krama (movement and sequence methodology) approach to yogasana (yoga posture) practice is unique in all of yoga. By integrating the functions of mind, body and breath in the same time frame, a practitioner will experience the real joy of yoga practice. Each of the important postures (asanas) is practiced with many elaborate vinyasas (variations and movements). Each variation is linked to the next one by a succession of specific transitional movements, synchronized with the breath. the mind closely follows the slow, smooth, deliberate ujjayi yogic breathing; and the yoking of mind and body takes place with the breath acting as the harness."

What is Kaivalya?

Kaivalya = Absolute freedom from the bondage of matter. The ultimate goal of the Yogi.

Friday, January 7, 2011

Srivatsa Ramaswami: The Ancient Teachings of Yoga

Srivatsa Ramaswami: The Ancient Teachings of Yoga

By Cara Jepsen

”What is the ultimate goal of yoga?” Srivatsa Ramaswami asked on the first night of his recent sold-out workshop at the N.U. Yoga Center. “Is it merely to maintain physical health or make the body beautiful?”

As we shook our heads no, he said he that in addition to vinyasa and asana the weekend workshop would focus on “the aspects of yoga not commonly discussed” and fell under the heading of svadyaya, or what he described as self-development. Then he launched into a discussion about the importance of chanting, or mantra. “It involves the two senses we use most often--the eyes and the ears,” he said. With one of his longtime students he demonstrated how mantras were traditionally memorized--the teacher said the mantra once, and the student repeated it back twice. Sometimes it took as many as 100 times for it to click, he said.

It was a rare chance to hear directly--and in impeccable English--from someone who had studied closely with Sri T. Krishnamacharya, who is widely regarded as one of the greatest yogis of the last century (and who in turn learned at the feet of Rama Mohan Bramachari). Srivatsa began studying with Krishnamacharya when he was a teenager, meeting with him daily from 1955 until 1988--a year before his teacher’s death. (That is several years more than Pattabhi Jois and over 30 years longer than B.K.S. Iyengar studied with the master.... Not that it’s a competition. But it does make one wonder why Srivatsa, who was Krishnamacharya’s longest-standing student, wasn’t part of the recent Krishnamacharya Yoga Festival in San Francisco).

After he learned asana, Krishnamacharya taught him the Vedic chants, the Yoga Sutras and many of the Upanishads. Srivatsa taught for 20 years at the Kalaksetra Institute in Chennai, India, and is the author of Yoga for the Three Stages of Life. He’s recorded the Vedic chants his teacher taught him and is working on a book of over 700 vinyasas (sequences), also picked up from Krishnamacharya. This was his third trip to Chicago, and after his stint at N.U. he led a three-day sutra study workshop in Evanston.

Srivatsa used my favorite teaching technique; first he explained or demonstrated something to us, and then he had us try it. The theme of the workshop seemed to be that doing asana alone has a limited effect, and that meditation, pranayama and mantra are just as important.

He explained that in order to chant it’s important to be seated properly (something the body learns by doing asana). He gave us a handout containing the Sanskrit alphabet and some mantras, which we were soon chanting--though not very well (you should have heard us try to say “SHAN-ti” properly). But first he explained how to pronounce “ohm.” (It begins with “ah.” The “oooo”--not oh--sound comes straight from the throat, and the “mmm” is held very briefly at the end.)

Asana alone is not sufficient, he reiterated. No yoga practice can be complete without pranayama, which should be done before meditation. The three, along with mantra, work in concert.

At one point he was asked at what age children could begin yoga practice. “They can learn asana and stretches when they are five to seven,” he said. “From the time they can say, ‘I am hungry.’”

Then he had us tune out the world by placing our fingers over our ears, eyes and nose. In position we were to notice how many times the mind wandered as we breathed in and out through our mouths. I found myself comparing the experience to the taxing pranayama exercise at the beginning of the Bikram series and noticed how dry the air seemed when it came in through the mouth. I found closing off the senses to be claustrophobic and challenging. But when it was over I left the workshop feeling very good indeed.

We began Day Two with a mantra and then worked on vinyasa, which he translated as a sequence of asanas, or, literally, “to place things properly.” Vinyasa also integrates body, breath and mind. He explained there are about a dozen major vinyasa sequences and several hundred poses (of which about 150 are commonly practiced). “Vinyasa allows us to move into a posture more easily and to stay longer,” he said. He reminded us that the sutras say one should be stable and comfortable in asana.

He told us to use a five-second inhale and a five-second exhale to move in and out of poses “so that every movement is at least 10 seconds long.” Once that becomes comfortable, it should be lengthened to 12 seconds. “In Hindu philosophy, life is determined by the number of breaths you take. If you slow the breath down, you live longer,” Srivatsa informed us.

We did a sequence of standing vinyasas for the upper body that involved our arms and shoulders and became more complex with each movement. A couple of the movements were similar to those in ashtanga’s sun salutations, but the effect was heightened because each one took five seconds. Srivatsa also had some longtime students from out of town demonstrate a delightful “bird sequence” of postures that involved hopping gracefully forward and backward into utkatasana (chair pose). We were invited to try it as well (this slow learner took a pass).

Another sequence began with a seated forward bend and included navasana (boat pose) and urdhva mukha pascimottanasana (a balancing version of the forward bend). He told us to focus on stretching our bodies during the exhale and then added some variations on upavista konasana (wide leg forward bend). It was interesting to note the similarities and differences between his and Pattabhi Jois’ teachings and think about the different things they had learned from Krishnamacharya--who taught each student based on their particular ability and temperament.

We followed the asana session with kapalabhati (an exercise for the purification of the nasal passages and lungs) and some breath retention exercises in which the exhale slowly became longer and longer. “Only one person exhaled ten breaths. Do you know who that was?” he asked afterwards.

“It was me,” he answered, with an impish grin on his face.

After a break he re-reiterated his theme: “Asanas are good to look at but the benefits of the other aspects of yoga are more important.” It’s not beneficial “if at the end of class people sweat and run away.” It’s better to wind down with mantra and pranayama after asana. “Be aware of what you’re doing and be in control throughout class,” he advised.

A sequence designed to prepare the body for shoulderstand had us on our backs doing backbends and forward bends (in the form of leg and arm raises). More pranayama and a final mantra followed it. “Do you panic when you exhale for ten breaths?” he asked us. “I used to.” He suggested starting with a five-second exhale and lengthening it slowly, one second a time. “Or exhale with sound. Then you’re not focused on the breath.” We tried it, making a buzzing, beelike sound. “Also try not to inhale immediately,” he advised. Then he left us with a final thought.

“Asana practice should ultimately lead to the ability to be seated for a long time, so you can do pranayama and meditation, and so the body is not a source of distraction. Meditation cannot be done without proper preparation.”

A month later I was still trying to incorporate the five-second inhale and exhale into my own practice and teaching (this seems to have resonated with at least one student). The practice seems to make my usually short fuse quite a bit longer. I’m also thinking a lot about pranayama and mantra. Not doing it as much as I should. But definitely thinking about it.

Srivatsa Ramaswami will return to N.U. Yoga Center later this year. Check www.yogamind.com or call 773.327.3650 for details.

Cara Jepsen is a writer and teaches yoga at the N.U. Yoga Center and YogaNow. She also teaches privately and in the workplace. She’ll be in India this winter and reachable via carajepsen@yahoo.com. Read about her trip at www.mysore.blogspot.com.

Wednesday, January 5, 2011

Yoga and Traditional Shamanic Elements Go Hand In Hand

Ayahuasca as a Spiritual Path

   In the old times before we knew Ayahuasca, certain Sages dedicated their lives to the study of the Self. They attained connection with the ultimate reality. They understood nature, and the essence of everything. Then, at this point, traditional medicine was brought to humanity. These Sages understood the energy of every plant, the medicine of everything. This formed the basis of traditional shamanism, not just in the Amazon but, everywhere in the world. In Quechua these Sages are known as SumaRuna, or great people. 
Working with Ayahuasca, you can choose different paths, good or bad. Those shamans who choose the bad path look for power. Shamans who choose the good path look for spiritual evolution and the ultimate reality. 
In the remote areas of the jungle, certain kinds of Shamans or Sages use the Ayahuasca as a spiritual path. There are different levels of shamanism; shamans grow differently. When a shaman attains certain levels of high spirituality, he may choose to live in isolation, away from all people. These shamans understand the true nature of reality; at certain stages they do not even drink Ayahuasca anymore. 
In these times now we have lost such a great spirituality. We are so involved in our daily life, our egos, what we do, what we want, like, do not like, and all this causes suffering. We don’t feel connected with the Earth; most people, in fact, don’t have any connection with the Earth anymore. 
The farther we are from the Earth, the farther we are from our true nature. 
Staying connected to the Earth does not mean working the land or digging in it. Feeling your hands and feet dirty with the Earth is good, but the inner connection is the key. 
Ayahuasca helps us to remember our true nature, our origins. Ayahuasca allows us to see the reality, raw, without any conditioning. One of the most important lessons of the Ayahuasca is about dissolving our small self into the higher self. We call that surrender. 
All of us, we are going to die. We may have 20, 40, 60 years on this Earth. Maybe 80. The Ayahuasca teaches us how to die. 
Finding God in this life is not the least or the most important thing – it is what we have come here to do. When Ayahuasca becomes our path to the Divine, God’s grace flows through the plant to the deepest part of us. Divine Grace manifests in our lives in many ways, accelerating the process of evolution. That is Divine Grace, bringing our most profound tendencies out to the consciousness, tendencies sleeping so deep in ourselves we do not recognize them. This is part of this process of evolution. 
The act of thinking about God is in itself the Grace of God. 
Your experience does not end when the Ceremony is finished. The journey of Ayahuasca as a spiritual path begins AFTER the Ceremony, where you realize your most profound tendencies, bringing more consciousness into them, becoming more complete as a person. There is a deeper connection with reality. It is the experience of many people to feel a deeper bliss or joy after Ceremony as they begin to connect with higher realities – or God.   
Ayahuasca gives physical, emotional, and psychological healing, but Ayahuasca can take us deeper. True healing comes from the source. We need greater contact with the self, with the truth, with God. If we focus on the path to spiritual evolution, Ayahuasca can bring us to God.


Stories of Sri Krishnamacharya

Below you'll find the first newsletter from Jan. 2000 of (Sri Krishnamacharya's son) Sri T.K. Sribhashyam's 'Yogakshemam: School of Traditional Teaching of Indian philosophy, Ayurveda and Yoga'

Summary :

· Editorial : The birth of Yogakshemam Newsletter -T.K.Sribhashyam

· Yogakshemam - its signification - T.K.Sribhashyam

· Sri T. Krishnamacharya, from Muchchukunte to Thirumala - T.K.Sribhashyam

· About Guruji - Sri B.K.S.Iyengar

· My father’s medicine - T. Alamelu

· My childhood memoriesT.K.V.Desikachar

· The daily life of my father-in-law Sri T. Krishnamacharya - Claire Sribhashyam

· My father’s tricks – Srishubha

· A memorable event with my grand parents – Navarâtri festival – Sribhagyam

· Sri T. Krishnamacharya’s daily evening drink.

Editorial: : The birth of Yogakshemam Newsletter

Born in 1982, the Yogakshemam School is represented in many European countries. You who are the students of Yogakshemam, you have many things in common in spite of the diversity, the particularity and the individuality in each of you. Even though you have little chances of meeting together and get to know each other, you cultivate, develop and transmit the same values, thus becoming a united family.

Even if you had learnt many common subjects, yet each group, each seminary and each session offers its own particularity. In no means, they have affected the spirit of unity that you maintain, but sharing your knowledge will only reinforce your unity. Form this is born the idea of a newsletter.

Yogakshemam is very happy to inform you that Yogakshemam Newsletter is published in France, Germany, Italy and in Greece in their respective languages. Yogakshemam Newsletter wishes to be a means of communication between India, your students and your friends. To maintain the spirit of unity, the layout as well as the contents would be as accurate as possible to the French edition.

As a mark of respect, the first number is entirely dedicated to Sri T. Krishnamacharya. We have collected the childhood memories of his family members. There will be some more in the next numbers. We hope that you would lend continuous support to Yogakshemam Newsletter as you have lent to the teaching of Yogakshemam and that you will also give it a very long life.

Yogakshemam – its signification

- Sri T. K. Sribhashyam

It is in 1982 that I had had the idea of opening a Yoga Teachers’ Training school with a stress on Indian philosophy and real devotion which were very dear to my father. All over one evening, I thought over a name that would reflect the objectives of this new school. The next morning, I was woken up by a poem of the Bhagavad Githa in my mind:

Ananyâs chintayantômâm

yé janâs paryupâsathé

téshâm nityâbhi yuktânama

yogakshemam vahâmyaham.

When I informed my father that this poem woke me up, he chose the name Yogakshemam for the school and had the grace to bless it for an expanding and eternal life. That is how, is born in Europe, Yogakshemam.

The word yogakshemam is derived form two words: yoga and kshemam. The word yoga has many meanings: (1) to unite, (2) to mix, (3) to create a relation, (4) meditation, (5) means, trick, (6) success, (7) to dress, enthronement, (8) unexpected earnings, new wealth, (9) will, (10) medicine, (11) physical force, (12) material riches, (13) planetary conjunctions’ influence on humans, (14) planetary interrelation in a native astrological chart, (15) the interactive action between the day of the week, the solar transit and an individual birth star, (16) stopping of the modification of the mental activities, (17) specific force of a combination of words in a sentence, (18) pride, (19) union with God. The word Kshema also has many meanings: (1) protection of what is obtained, (2) pleasure, felicity, sound health, (3) auspicious, well-being, (4) protection, (5) Liberation. It is also the name of one of the sons of Yama, the God of death.

The word yogakshemam signifies attainment of new riches and its protection. It also means having God’s vision and from that obtain the liberation.

This notion of attainment, of protection and of maintaining the felicity applies not only to what this world offers us but also to those of the liberated souls if not the Kingdom of Heaven. We find this notion from the beginning of Veda. But it is more direct in the Thaithiriya Upanishad and in the Bhagavad Githa. In the former, a reference is made to the supreme happiness coming from the knowledge brahman while in the Bhagavad Githa, Lord Krishna declares: Those persons, who think of nothing else and worship Me through meditation – the accession to and the maintenance of the welfare of such ever devout person, I look after.

Sri T. Krishnamacharya, from Muchchukunte to Thirumala

- Sri T. K. Sribhashyam

Muchchukunte is a small village in Andhra Pradesh of South India. This village in Chitradurga district is closer to Karnataka State. The word Muchchukunte comes from two Telugu words: muchchu meaning hidden, and kunta a lake. Muchchukunta is a village with a hidden lake.

Muchchukunte is the native place of Sri Krishnamacharya family. It is around this village that the family had very fertile land and comfortable houses earned by hard labour and from offerings from the kings of neighbouring states to Sri Krishnamacharya’s parents and grand parents. All the forefathers of Sri Krishnamacharya were great devotees of Lord Srinivasa of Thirumala and were so much dedicated to Him that they also became the ‘people of Thirumala’.

The initial T in my father’s name and in the name of all his children, stands for Thirumala, one of the holiest places of India situated in Andhra Pradesh, closer to Tamil Nadu, about 120 kilometres from Chennai. The word Thirumala comes from thiru or Sri and mala or Small Mountain. Thirumala or the holy mountain is the sacred place dedicated to Lord Srinivasa also called Venkateshwara, Lord of Venkata. Venkata is another name of Thirumala. Surprisingly, Thirumala is a Tamil language word and not Telugu which is the language of Andhra Pradesha. Telugu was the most beloved spoken language of Sri T. Krishnamacharya, next only to Sanskrit! Sri T. Krishnamacharya had not even a house of his own in Thirumala. He used to stay in Maths or religious monasteries or hire a room in a hotel. It was his custom to visit Thirumala once a year like millions of Hindus.

While our great master is called in the world of yoga as T. Krishnamacharya, he is known, recognised and respected in all the religious institutions and traditional Sanskrit universities as Muchukunte Krishnamacharya.

Being the eldest son of a large big and united family, he was the natural heir to the family properties. He loved to face intellectual and philosophical challenges all over India. To avoid being entangled by the obligations of family wealth and to be entirely free to answer to challenges, he left Muchchukunte offering all the wealth to his brothers, sisters and cousins to take shelter at Lord Srinivasa’s feet. In Hindu devotion, asking protection at the Feet of Lord is the most important devotional act. Lord Srinivasa is the Lord of Thirumala.

As Muchchukunte Krishnamacharya, as he is even now recognised, he was an intellectual giant where as Thirumala Krishnamacharya he was a spiritual master. In both the realms, he was unbeatable, yet both as Mucchukunte and as Thirumala Krishnamacharya, he lived a very simple living, so simple that no one, not even Indians, ever thought that they met such a great person. No where had he a house of his own.

He believed with an undaunted conviction that when one is at the Feet of God, peace, harmony and contentment would be his permanent home.

Was he the ‘hidden lake’ of Muchukunte?

About Guruji

- Sri B.K.S.Iyengar

My brother in law, Sri T. Krishnamacharya after initiating me in yoga, became my guru. Hence, my respect and reverence to him make me dumb to express on him.

He was a man with unsurpassable intelligence with a super sharp memory, an orator of his time, who could quote texts whether existed or non-existed instantaneously to establish his logic of Darshana. Many learned scholars had no iota of his quotes not knowing from where they come from. Yet, he was a very poor writer as an author. I have seen him making up his mind to put in black and white, but he never completed any of his undertakings. If his writings are preserved, one may see a few pages here and there on various subjects. The only printed book I have is his first part of Yogamakaranda in Kannada a few articles in booklet form.

I have seen him as a Pandita, heard him as a musician on a Veena (a musical instrument), a gardener, a wood cutter, chanter of Veda, a best cook, an astrologer and I don’t know to say what he did not know.

Often I have seen him as an intellectual wizard and noticed both the qualities of saint as well as bruteshness. His way of living was very simple.

He was happy to be always in a loins cloth, and often I have seen him going out with loin cloth (what we call langot) to buy things he wanted and have seen my sister (his wife) scolding him, which he never cared to listen.

One fine morning he was so harsh on me. He woke me up to water the plants. I got up, opened the tap for the tank to get filled. I was sitting on the parapet of the tank. He come out, saw me sitting and asked me to get out of the house and he went inside. I took his word literally knowing his nature, as he went in, I went out. It was dark. Having no friends nor relatives close by in Mysore; I made up to drown myself in the river at Sri Rangapattana. It was about 20 kilometres from Mysore. I strolled in the Palace garden and when the sun became bright, I walked towards the river Kaveri, desperate to end my life.

My brother-in-law might have become nervous in not seeing me at all. So he took a car from King’s uncle and searched for me. He must have anticipated that I may be on my way to Sri Rangapattana and found me half way, picked me up and took me back home.

The only question he asked me was “why are you out here”. I told him that I wanted to commit suicide and end my life to be free from slavery. He never spoke on the way.

If I had committed suicide, to day the yoga I learnt and practised would have gone into the thin air.

Soon he asked me to accept the job of a yoga teacher in Pune and am here since then.

My father’s medicine

- Srimathi T. Alamelu Sheshadri

It was an evening in 1939. I was probably 9 or 10 years of age. After school hours and play time, father’s first three children (my eldest sister Srimathi Pundarikavalli, my younger brother Sri T. Srinivasan and I) were to listen to the Vedic recitation chanted by some of father’s students. That was the method of training small children in those days to make learning easy and attractive. Father was there to rectify the mistakes.

When the class was going on, a stranger came running all on a sudden, with a little boy on his shoulders. The boy’s face was pale blue and was gasping for breath. I thought, the boy would die then and there.

He placed the young boy on my father’s lap, prostrated to my father praying him to save his son. Father took his pulse. He told me to get some warm pepper rasam from my mother. I came with rasam in a glass and give it to father, who still holding the boy’s pulse. The image of the boy on my father’s lap, taking his pulse and uttering prayers gave me the idea that he was transferring his own life force (prâna shakthi) to the boy. He fed the boy small quantities of the rasam. I couldn’t believe my eyes: The boy started breathing and his blue face disappeared. A few minutes later, he got up from my father’s lap and managed to stand and started walking slowly. We were all stunned. The stranger was speechless. With tears in his eyes he bowed down before my father. My father advised him to pray God with faith and reverence for the welfare of his son and continued his Vedic recitation class.

Some of my father’s method of curing the needy still remains a mystery in my mind.

Pepper rasam: A soup made out of little pepper powder, cumin seeds powder, a small quantity of jaggery, salt to taste and curry leaves. This mixture is boiled in diluted tamarind water for about five minutes.

My childhood memories

- Sri T.K.V. Desikachar

My first recollection of an even involving my father and myself is that once my father asked me to go to the Yogashala in Mysore. I was playing with friends. I said ‘no’. He came to catch me. We had eight coconut trees in our house and I climbed in one of them. He waited and left. Later when I cam down he caught me and tied me in baddha Padma Asana using a thin rope. I was in this posture before he untied me, after an hour.

One evening he took all of us to a movie called ‘Chandralekha’. I remember this because it was full of circus event. It is hard to believe that my father took us to cinema.

One more memory. One day my father and myself were walking on the street. A few Brahmins were coming in the opposite direction. The moment they saw my father they ran away. I asked my father why they ran away. He said that they were scared of him because he corrected their chanting in one of the religious ceremonies that took place recently. Later I came to know that they were Ghanapâtis.

Once we were playing in the street. We were targeting to hit with a stone a person coming in the opposite direction, carrying a bundle of grass on the head, thinking that the person must be some villager. As he approached us, we found he was my father carrying green grass for his cow. We fled from the scene.

The daily life of my father-in-law, Sri T. Krishnamacharya

- Claire Sribhashyam

When I started to visit my in-laws, my father-in-law was already very aged and yet lived to his own rhythms. He would wake up at 4 in the morning and would go to bed around 7 in the evening.

One of my best souvenirs was to be woken up every morning around four by the sound of the prayer bell announcing the beginning of his prayers. This daily morning ceremony that lasted an hour and a half was indeed a great feast for me. At times, I would wake up earlier and wait for the prayer bell to ring.

My mother-in-law would wake up a little later to open the door for the milk maid who brought us milk every morning shouting, below our windows, “pâl”, “pâl” (“pâl” in Tamil language means milk). Then she would prepare coffee for all of us and one by one we would all get up.

At the end of his long prayers, he would prepare his breakfast: wheat semolina roasted and cooked in water with some spices, coriander leaves and grated coconuts. He would share his preparation with children before sitting on the veranda to eat. He would spend some time reading the day’s newspapers while waiting for his students. At times, he would retire to his room to read or to give lessons. Once in a while, he would come to see me and talk or play with my daughter Sumitra or give me some advice on how to bring up young children.

In the afternoon, he would stay in the veranda to eat a fruit, often an orange or some grapes. He would never eat anything without first giving to children, young or elderly.

In the late afternoon, around 6 p.m., he would sit on the swing in the garden and watch the street life. Then, he would retire to bed after having drunk a glass of milk prepared with sugar, saffron and some cardamom. Everyone was attentive in not making too much of noise so as not to disturb him. And, next day at 4 in the morning, it was he who would give the departure sign for the new day by his prayer bell.

Ever since, I visit my in-laws, he had always had the same punctual rhythm. If, I did not hear the prayer bell at 4 in the morning, I was overcome by a slight anxiety! I would come out of the bed to see what he was doing. Felling that I was worried, he would say, with a smile, that he was late that morning.

My father’s trick

- Srimathi Shubha Mohan Kumar.

I consider this opportunity as blessings showered upon me to write about my parents. I happen to be the last child (6th) of my parents Prof. T. Krishnamacharya & Mrs. Namagririammal. I also happen to have born after almost 11yrs of my elder brother Sribhashyam. So you can well imagine how I was pampered and treated by all of them in our family. So in those early days of my childhood I was almost a VVIP. So was my background with extremely loving parents and very affectionate siblings around me all through. There are lots of memories to cherish while I was living with them. I would like to share the memories of my early days with my loving father. In those days 1959-60 I was in 2nd or 3rd year in school. I was into my fathers classroom on and off. It was all playful then. In those days he would go to triplicane to give yoga lessons to a family. He kept calling me to accompany him. Initially I used to refuse, so he ended up buying a very nice read satin kurtha and pajama so that it would attract me. Yes! For the sake of the new red dress I started going with him. Like any child I did stop after sometime so he would promise me that he would gift me something if I accompanied him. He used to take me in a cycle rickshaw one mode of transport in those days. The rikshaw ride was a long one about 30-40 min, so both my father and rikshawman would usually have a conversation about Indian politics which I was least interested. My mind would actually be wondering as to what new I would get, so that I could show-off. The class would go on for an hour or so. He would ask me to show a couple of postures. Some how the hour would pass, now was my time, appa used to take me to the fancy store and keep up his promise. He would reward me with a bead necklace, rubber/plastic bangles etc., as a child I loved it mainly because so very colourful and attractive. Each time I was reluctant to go because I was busy playing with my friends in the neighbourhood. So to pull me out from play and drag me he would always tempt me by saying “ u can have the gift of your choice”. He never made a stiff face, no matter what gift I chose. This became a routine which I cherished because of the time I used to spend with my father, the long ride around the town and not to forget my incentives at the end of the day.

I did not realise during those early days of my life as to why my father was taking me along. Now looking back on the memories my I realise that my father wanted to spend sometime with the kid of the family. He was a father who loved to give what his child asked whether it was important or not for him as long as it made his beloved kid happy. He was a simple plain and a friendly father. So, as a father, was this great personality Prof. T.Krishnamacharya - yogâchârya.

A memorable event with my grand-parents - Navarâtri festival

- Srimathi Sribhagyam Srinivasan (grand daughter of Sri T. Krishnamacharya)

Any festival for a child carries vivid images of splendour and grandeur of fun and frolic. As a small girl, the festival of Navarâtri also called, the autumn festival of nine nights was the most endearing one. It was full of gaiety ad piety, all the more so, because, I would celebrate it with my grand-parents in Madras.

Navarâtri is celebrated to mark the victory of Lord Sri Râma hero of the epic Râmâyana, over Râvana, the terrible demon king. In other words it is a victory of good over evil.

During this festival, the house was decorated. The major attraction for me was the exhibition of dolls of all types, with the king and queen given the pride of place arranged on well decorated steps. Small springs, gardens were added here and there to give an aesthetic look. A sacred silver pot, called Kalasha with a coconut surrounded by mango leaves is kept on the top representing the Goddess of Victory.

I can never forget the whole-hearted involvement of my uncle Sribhashyam. He would often chip in with new ideas to make it more artistic.

The delicious lunches prepared by grand-mother for everyone including grand-father’s students were simply superb! Her offerings to the Goddess was very special for me as I used to be with her during her prayers.

For my grand-father these nine days were days of severe austerity, special prayers, reading the epic Râmâyana for six to eight hours with explanation of each chapter to his students. The fact that he could do so much at his age, without forgoing his daily routine shows his perseverance, dedication and will-power!

The culmination of this nine day long festival of Navarâtri was done on the tenth day., by celebration the coronation of Lord Sri Râma. With grandfather leading the prayers, the whole atmosphere would be electrified as if by a divine presence.

I enjoyed such precious moments with my grand-parents.

Sri T. Krishnamacharya’s daily evening drink

Almond milk

Ingredients :

25 cl of milk

2 green cardamoms

2 spoonful of almond powder

2 filaments of saffron

Sugar according to taste

Cooking time : 10 minutes

Dip the saffron in some lukewarm water for 20 minutes.

Crush cardamoms into fine powder. Put it in the saffron water and mix well.

Boil the milk and add the saffron water with cardamom in the milk. Continue boiling the milk in a low heat for 5 minutes mixing it once in a while.

Put out the fire and let the milk cool. Drink lukewarm.

You can add sugar according to taste along with the saffron water.


Monday, January 3, 2011

The Great and Gentle Man from Madras: Srivatsa Ramaswami

The Great and Gentle Man from Madras:
Srivatsa Ramaswami
Month Long Course
Loyola Marymount University,
Los Angeles

By Charlotte Holtzermann

Studying with Srivatsa Ramaswami is transforming. He’s the real deal - clear, lucid, inspiring. He conveys the meaning inherent in pursuing the whole eight limbs of yoga. He shares his deep understanding with humility, strength and great, good nature." So wrote teacher and 30 year yoga student, Sherie Sheer, about her month long study with Srivatsa Ramaswami. Students felt connected to a lineage of a full spectrum of yoga: asana, chanting, philosophy, pranayama, service, study and meditation.

Ramaswami studied under the tutelage of Krishnamacarya (1888-1989, considered one of the great yoga teachers of the 20th century) for 33 years and was Krishnamacarya’s longest standing student outside his own family. From the age of 15, Ramaswami arose at 4 A.M., bathed and went with his father to Krishnamacarya’s house at 5 A.M. to practice yoga before going to school and later to work as an engineer in his father’s business. Ramaswami studied with Krishnamacarya for 15 years before he began teaching yoga in a school of dance. It made me ponder how brief my own study of yoga was before I began to lead classes.

Our classes met in University Hall, a large classroom and office building perched on the south bluffs of Los Angeles. For four weeks, a group of 30 yoga teachers and students from Canada, the Midwest, Texas and the West Coast met every morning from 9 A.M. to noon to practice Vinyasa Krama with this great and gentle man from Madras.

Our teacher greeted us individually as we arrived before class. He began each session with chanting, explaining the meanings of the prayers as blessings for the teacher, the students and the teachings. We entered the sounds of Sanskrit.

Om Saha Navavatu May we be protected.

Saha Nau Bhunaktu May we enjoy the
experience together.

Saha Viryam Karavavahai May we study with energy.

Tejasvi Navadhitamastu May we become filled with the luster of knowledge.

Ma Vidvisavahai May there be no disharmony between us.

Om Shantih, Shantih, Shantih Peace, Peace, Peace

Every morning, we began our practice with a standing sequence designed to open the chest cavity, shoulder girdle and arms. Ramaswami asked two members of the class to lead the sequence at the front of the room. By the end of the month, everyone had taken a turn. We stood in silence for a few moments in samasthiti (a state of balance). With heads bowed in jalandhara bhanda (chin lock), we raised our arms overhead to open our core body in twists, side, back and deep forward bends. We listened to the quiet voice of Ramaswami, breathe and speak through a microphone. "Inhale raise your arms overhead. Exhale —now lower your arms."

It felt like we got on deck and set sail. A wind arose in the room as our breathing joined in the steady—whispered air of ujjayi (throat breathing). We sailed in prana sanchara—movement of the breath. The floor creaked as our feet spread into balance, facing a courtyard view of red gladioli, a water fountain and wavering feathers of pampas grass, luminous in the sunlight.

The first week we encountered about 150 vinyasas (variations) stemming from tadasana (the hill pose) and asymmetrical seated postures. Our teacher described the essence of yoga as lying in the bandhas, muscular locks which massage the internal organs. He emphasized that the bandhas distinguish yoga from other forms of exercise.

We practiced jalalandhara bandha by bringing our chin down towards our raised chest. This allowed my spine to lengthen, the back of my neck to feel open. We gathered our pelvic floor in mala bandha (rectal lock). We drew our abdomen up and back in uddiyana bandha (abdominal lock) in the pause after our outgoing breath. Using these bandhas in poses gave me internal anchors.

Ramaswami asked us everyday in a cordial way, "Would you like to try this pose?" After each sequence, he invited us to "now please lie down and rest." This made me look at my language to students in my classes. How often I command, "Now let’s do this pose."

Ramaswami believes the practice of yoga in America can be enriched, by offering the whole tradition. The key idea, he said, is enriching asana and he presented numerous lessons for doing that.

During his month long residency, Ramaswami offered Vinyasa Krama on weekday mornings, a Saturday morning class in Samkhya Karika, the metaphysical principles that underpin yoga, and on Saturday afternoon, Chikitsa Krama, a workshop on the applications of yoga as a therapeutic tool.

Vinyasa Krama yoga is a logically planned sequence of movements and poses with appropriate breathing, a method of linking breath to movement which Krishnamacarya used to teach asanas. Each movement is performed on a deliberate in or out breath. Ramaswami said Krishnamacharya insisted on synchronizing breath with movement.

Vinyasa Krama means the art form of doing Yoga. Vi means variations possible, ni means permanently and aasa means to place correctly. We practiced flowing sequences originating from a standing tadasana position. We learned root poses and an array of variations along with the counter poses for each.
Each week, Ramaswami introduced about 200 poses to the Vinyasa Krama class. With pages from his forthcoming book projected on the studio wall, students could observe a core pose and its progression of variations in sequence, as well as a large image showing the details of each pose.

We climbed into difficult poses and watched adept classmates demonstrate advanced postures. Notebooks, laptops and cameras were allowed. Two students monitored video cameras on tripods at the back of the studio.

During the third week, we practiced sequences of trikonasana, triangle standing Poses, vajrasana, seated postures, and a series of viparita asanas — inversions. Ramaswami recommended letting the legs hang limp in the air for the first few moments of the inversion, a subtle point of practice and how releasing it is to let the blood descend through the veins before reaching up with the feet. He impressed on the class the importance of practicing sarvangasana, shoulderstand, everyday for at least five minutes.

Having taught yoga for twenty years in hospitals in India and more recently at the UCLA School of Medicine, Ramaswami conveyed the importance of not using yoga as an alternative therapy for acute conditions. "Yoga is for relatively healthy people," he cautioned.

In every class, our teacher responded to numerous questions. Suheila Mouammar, mother of three sons, asked him to speak about food and eating. Standing in stocking feet with shoes removed, his hands gesturing to and from his heart, Ramaswami advised chewing a few leaves of basil first thing in the morning, grinding them together with neem leaf, turmeric and fenugreek.

He recommended eating only to half one’s fullness: three handfuls of food at a meal, and having a light supper in the evening. His summary was jovial. "You know, we say a yogi eats one meal a day, a bhogi eats two meals a day, a rogi eats three meals a day." This teaching stays with me, putting three handfuls of food on my plate.

We closed our daily practice sitting in shanmukhi mudra (closing of all six sense organs) for five minutes. With crossed legs and elbows at shoulder level, we pressed the pads of our fingers into points near our ears, eyebrows, nose and mouth. Sealing off the outer world, hearing the furnace sound of breath in our inner ear, stillness enveloped us. I felt full and balanced after each class and realized a new promise to always include time for pranayama and quiet sitting at the end of asana.

At lunch every day, a small group shared a meal brought to campus by a nearby Indian restaurant. Amidst the burgers and fries going down in the cafeteria, we ate raita, pappadom, sag palak, dal, allogabi, pullao and salad, gently cooked vegetables and legumes in spicy sauce with yogurt, rice and bread. I tried to imitate our teacher’s small portions. We shared some leftovers giving the rest to a student who took them to homeless people at the beach.

Members of the Vinyasa Krama class were affected by the month-long plunge into a daily three-hour practice of chanting, asana, breathing and meditation. Jessica Harper, a recent LMU graduate in dance said: "He offers completeness. After this month, I feel more balanced in my soul. This practice brings me closer to the kind of life I want to lead. It’s teaching me how to be a human being, humble, letting go."
Michael Manoogian, an LMU professor of civil engineering and environmental science said, "This month of study altered my approach to yoga practice. It reinforces my awareness of the depth of yoga.”

I was struck by Ramaswami’s steady energy at age 65, teaching for three hours every weekday morning, working with individual students in private sessions in the afternoon and offering lecture and discussion for a further five hours on Saturdays.

Ramaswami showed us how to be more balanced as we live in an ancient tree of knowledge. I notice my spirit is steadier. There is more breath moving through my back. Daily life feels more like service and my energy is lighter after a month of morning practice with my kula, a group of yogi’s riding the waves of breath filled vinyasa.

Ramaswami will return to LMU in November 2005 to continue teaching in the Yoga Philosophy Program. Visit http://extension.edu/yoga for information about courses and events.

Charlotte Holtzermann teaches the Alexander Technique and Beginning Hatha Yoga at Loyola Marymount University. She writes on health and well being in Los Angeles.

January 2011 Newsletter from Srivatsa Ramaswami—Iswarapranidhana

January 2011 Newsletter from Srivatsa Ramaswami—Iswarapranidhana

Wish you a very happy and prosperous New year, a New Decade.

December was India month. LMU had arranged a ten day retreat in New
Delhi the modern capital of India and Rishikesh the holy city along
the Ganga, About ten participants from the USA and six from India
attended the program. We had almost six hours instruction everyday,
three hours of asanas and pranayama and about three hours of Yoga
Sutras and Yoga for Health. I thought the programs went well. What was
remarkable was that despite some real difficulties and challenges,
everyone stayed to the end. I am beholden to all participants for
their interest, support and patience. Thank you Dr Chris Chapple and
Alana Bray of LMU for affording the opportunity.

I spent a couple of days in Hyderabad thanks to the invitation of
Saraswati Vasudevan of Yoga Vahini and Salil Ganeriwal of Shwaas,
both of whom have long experience in the Krishnamaharya tradition.
Saraswathy Vasudevan who has more than 17 years teaching experience in
the Krishnamacharya tradition was the director of a 500 hr Yoga
Therapy certification program. 14 very enthusiastic and knowledgeable
yoga teachers completed the program and I had the pleasant opportunity
to distribute the certificates and speak briefly. The teachers
included Amala Akkaneni, one of my first students. She studied yoga
with me for a few years as a student of Kalakshetra in the mid 1970s.
It was nice to meet her too. Salil gave me an opportunity to speak
about Yoga for Healing (Health) at his beautiful studio Shwaas.


Maybe I have written on this topic earlier.

Normally in Sutras, the same term/idea should not be repeated. But in
the yogasutras of Patanjali the term Iswarapranidhana is used three
times. It is acceptable if the term is used with different
connotations in different places/contexts.

According to my Guru, the yogasutra even as it deals with subject of
(Raja)Yoga, caters to the needs of three different groups or levels of
yoga aspirants. The first one the highest or the uttama adhikaris are
the intended group of aspirants in the first chapter called the
samadhi pada. Here Patanjali used the term Iswarapranidhana as an
independent means of achieving the goal of Kaivalya or spiritual
freedom the set goal of yoga. It is the complete quietening of the
mind or chitta vritii nirodha. According to Patanjali it is possible
to achieve this yogic goal by intense devotion to Iswara (pranidhana=
bhakti visesha) as indicated by the term Iswarapranidhana in this
context. By the proper Japa of pranava which would indicate the mystic
syllable or mantra “OM” the highest aspirant (adhikari) who already
has the ability to go into a stage of samadhi (hence dealt with in
Samadhi Pada) will be able to achieve this extraordinary result. An
intense faith and devotion to the eternal unfettered spirit,
Iswara,whose essence is pure consciousness and still endowed with
omniscience would do the trick and nothing else is needed. If however
this devotional fervor is lacking even if the samadhi capacity is
there, the more step by step process of going through stages of
mastering Prakriti (24 aspects ) may be resorted to following the
path of Niriswara Samkhyas who have difficulty in subscribing to a
nimitta karana or an efficient cause for creation..

In the second chapter, Sadhana Pada, Patanjali takes the case of those
who without the yogic skill of Samadhi, but still wish to start to go
along the path of Yoga, the first step in a 1000 mile long yoga
journey. To them, the absolute beginners, he would include
Iswarapranidhana as one of the steps in Kriya yoga . Here
Iswarapranidhana has a different application. It is not the use of
Pranava Japa as the Samadhi Yogi would do but Iswarapujana or worship
of Iswara as per many yogis. Simple to complicated rituals are
available for the interested to remain focused on Iswara for a period
of time every day. This in practical terms is much easier to resort to
following the well established procedures of puja (worship rituals) of
the Lord. This is possible for anyone with faith in God, but lack the
samadhi capability. One may not be able to achieve Samadhi with this
but it will slowly prepare the mind to go along the path of yogic
samadhi. Concurrently it will also reduce the mental pain caused by
several kleshas like avidya etc.

One may ask if Iswarapranidhana or Iswarapujana as it is said in Kriya
yoga can by itself lead to samadhi bhavana or is it part of a whole
practice called Kriya yoga. Another corollary question would be what
if one has difficulty believing in God, could one still take advantage
of kriyayoga? There are references to practices of kriya yoga used
without the Iswarapranidhana component. The great epic Ramayana
describes a sage as one established in austerity and scriptural
studies. The Ramayana opens with the two traits of Kriaya yoga viz.,
tapas and swadhyaya. (tapas swadhyaya nirataam). So we may see that
there are occasions where the first two traits are mentioned
independent of Iswarapranidhana. Of course it would be best to use all
the three parts of kriya yoga.

When a start up yogi belonging to the iswarapranidhana stream
practices iswara pujana assiduously, the mental klesas come down and
she/he will be well on the path of conditioning the mind for samadhi.
Then we have the next yoga stage called ashtanga yoga a more elaborate
and complete yoga sadhana or yoga practice. Herein also is
Iswarapranidhana mentioned and the result of this practice as part of
niyama would be Samadhi itself, which also is the goal of the entire
ashtanga yoga as samadhi is the last anga. Commentators give a
different interpretation of Iswarapranidhana here in ashtanga yoga
than what is found in first chapter and in kriya yoga.. They would
say that it would refer to doing one's prescribed duties diligently as
God's work and surrendering oneself to the Lord and also the fruits of
all actions. This intermediate stage yogi or madhyama adhikari the
one not having the skill of going into samadhi but is totally
committed to yoga as a life long pursuit. For her/him Patanjali
suggests the classical ashtanga yoga. Here as per my Guru and several
commentators it would mean total surrender to the Lord or Saranagati
or prapatti. One may say that the prescribed duties would also imply
practicing the stipulated duties in ashtanga yoga and doing them as
God's work with a complete sense of surrender to the Lord. This “karma
Yoga” in which the results of the practices do not cloud the yogi's
mind is “karma phala tyaga”. This devotional path will lead to Samadhi
the necessary skill to take the last lap in the yoga journey.

My teacher being a devout Bhakti Yogi stressed the importance of the
Iswarapranidhana stream in the Yoga Sutras. The Yogis who have an
intense devotional fervor could do well to follow the devotional path.
For most yogis a judicious combination of samkhya yoga and bhakti yoga
would be helpful as is the direction of the sutras. But it is also
necessary to point out that Iswarapranidhana even though it is
mentioned just three times in the whole text forms an independent and
complete system of Yoga in the Yoga sutras. For the start up Yogi it
prepares the mind for samadhi and also simultaneously reduces the
mental klesas. At the intermediate level it leads to dawn of Samadhi a
necessary tool for both Siddhis and Kaivalya and a reduction in
impurities of the mind, the Rajas and Tamas.. At the highest level
Isawarapranidhana leads to understanding the true nature of oneself
(pratyak cetana)and also the removal of all spiritual obstacles

Many other acharyas also have taken the efforts to stress the
importance of both the streams. Adi Sankara the advocate of Advaita
or nondualism, wrote great works not only on the intellectually
challenging subjects as advaita like the Brahma Sutra Bhashya,
Vivekachudaani etc., but also wrote such wonderful devotional works as
Bhaja Govindam, Soundarya Lahari and several others. Sri Sankara apart
from being the most revered exponent of Advaita also came to be known
as one who established the six methods of orthodox worship of the
divine in India (shan-mata-sthapana-acahrya), The six methods are
worship of Ganesa (Ganapatya), Kumara (Kaumara), of Mother Sakti
(Saakta), of Siva (Saiva), of Vishnu (Vaishnava) and of the Sun
(Saura). He wrote numerous works of poetry on all these deities.
Patanjali, Adi Sankara, my own Guru Sri Krishnamacharya and several
orthodox teachers of yesteryear were at considerable ease with both
the paths of wisdom and of devotion.

Again, I wish you a very Happy and Prosperous New Year.

It is two years since I started sending these Newsletters and thank
you all for the kind support.

The earlier newsletters and articles may be accessed by going to my
website www.vinyasakrama.com and then clicking on the Newsletter tab.

For reply or comments please send to info@vinyasakrama.com

With best wishes

Srivatsa Ramaswami

About Sri T.K. Sribhashyam (Son of Krishnamacharya)

Sri T.K. Sribhashyam, the third son of Sri T. Krishnamacharya, was born in Mysore in 1940. He obtained his Master’s Degree in Accountancy as well as in Hindu philosophy in Chennai. Right from his childhood Sri T. Krishnamacharya initiated him to Yajur Veda and taught him in the traditional way all major Upanishads, Brahma Sūtra and Bhagavad Gīta. Sri T. Krishnamacharya trained him in Yoga practice and teaching. Apart from this, he also received intensive lessons on Yoga Philosophy and Indian Psychology. Āyurveda, the Indian Medical Science, was another subject of study under his father. Sri T.K. Sribhashyam began to practise Āyurveda under the guidance of Sri T. Krishnamacharya in 1956; at the same time he also started teaching Yoga. Since 1970, he is transmitting his father's teachings in Europe. In 1999, the Mysore Sanskrit College conferred on him the title of Ācharya (Master) for his faithful and devoted teaching of Hindu philosophy. He is the Head of all Yogakshemam schools in Europe, which are recognised by the European Yoga Union. Many Yoga journals in Europe frequently publish articles written by him; European and International Yoga Conferences appreciate his regular lectures on subjects of Hindu philosophy. He is an Honorary Life Member of the International Yoga Federation and the World Yoga Council. He is married and has two children. Apart from South Indian languages, he speaks French and English fluently.

Pranayama article by Sri T.K. Sribhashyam (Son of Krishnamacharya)

P R A N A Y A M A  -  An Absolute Necessity in YOGA

- A  dedicated homage to my father and teacher,


                       Whatever be the reason for teaching Yoga, it is a certainty that the pupil, slowly but definitely, quests for the ULTIMATE REALITY.  Even if multitudes of methods, school, ideas and individuation have drifted Yoga from its real value, yet, it is because of the incessant search of pupils that Yoga continues to have an important place in the inner reflections of people all around the world.
           This drift from the real nature of Yoga might have many reasons.  Amongst them the lack of importance given to PRANAYMA in one's practice cannot be ignored.

Very often false reasons are invoked to keep PRANAYAMA away from one's teaching or practice.  Still, there is not one teacher nor one school that does not talk of PRANA.
          It is true that the Yogic way for the quest of inner Self and the Search for God Realisation through Pranayama is not a simple subject.  This should not be an excuse for not introducing it in the practice sessions of pupils whether they practice regularly or not.
      In fact, Pranayama maintains and  keeps our spiritual life alive, just as our breath that keeps our biological one alive.  For the same reason very often Pranayama is confounded with our physiological breath.  Indeed, the relation between the two seems so juxtaposed that we get mixed up.  It is just like a tool and the basic raw material out of which the tool is made up of.  The tool is so much and so often used that we seldom think of the importance of the basic metal that give birth to the tool.  Still, we know that the quality and the value of the basic material are the determining factors for the utility, value and life of the tool. Same way,  in the eyes of the Yogic Masters, our physiological breath is but a tool.
      The Great Masters of India used this relation to the utmost and derived great benefit in their spiritual quest.  They did not use the physiological breathing merely to increase  the vital reserves, but valued it more in a metaphysical sense.   Since the physical breath is but a product of the basic material, this product should help us `know' that basic material!                                         
      That is to say, by `going beyond' the product, in which the basic material is present, one should be able to find it in its `natural form'.  This,  the VEDAS and the UPANISHADS call  PRANA, and that which helps go beyond is  AAYAMA.  So much so, the means by which the physical breath is used to `go beyond' are termed
      PRANAYAMA is part and parcel of any Yogic approach worth its name.  Moreover, it is not out of place to take note that no Hindu ritual starts without a Pranayama.  This does not mean that Yoga is a religious act, but since it has its root in Hinduism, we cannot but consider it as our reference.
      Coming to the practical aspects, Yogic Science has given clear cut rules for the introduction of Pranayama in any Practice Session.  Later studies have given light on their physiological actions on the human body as a whole.
      Here we shall content ourselves with some fundamental principles:
  1.  Those that act mainly on the Physiological functions,
       as for eg. UJJAYI ANULOMA and SHITHALI.
  2.  Those that act mainly on the Nervous System,
3.  Those that work on the mental plane,
       as for eg. NADI SHODHANA with Bahya Kumbhaka and
       SURYA BHEDHANA,     
4.  Those that maintain the Spiritual Quest,
       both of them as SAGARBHA PRANAYAMA
       Let us briefly recapitulate the technique of the above Pranayama, remembering that the Pranayama are done in a sitting posture (VAJRA ASANA or PADMA ASANA), and that the back should be straight, without any cushion or pillow under the hips.

UJJAYI ANULOMA: Inhalation (PURAKA) through both nostrils in UJJAYI, Exhalation (RECHAKA) through Left Nostril, without ujjayi, Inhalation through both nostrils in Ujjayi, and Exhalation through the Right Nostril, without Ujjayi.  These two breaths making one Cycle of Ujjayi Anuloma. 
SHITHALI:  Slightly open the mouth, bring out the tongue, fold it lengthwise, to make it resemble a tube, Inhale (aspire) through the mouth.  At the end of the Inhalation, draw back the tongue, close the mouth, and Exhale through Ujjayi, by both the nostrils. 
UJJAYI VILOMA:  Inhale through the Left Nostril, without using Ujjayi, Exhale through Ujjayi, with both the nostrils open.  Inhale, again through the Right Nostril, without using Ujjayi, and Exhale through Ujjayi, with both the nostrils open.  This forms one Cycle. 
UJJAYI PRATHILOMA:   Inhale through Ujjayi, Exhale by the Left Nostril, Inhale by Left Nostril, Exhale by Ujjayi, Inhale by Ujjayi, Exhale by Right Nostril, Inhale by Right Nostril, and  Exhale by Ujjayi.  These 4 breaths make one cycles, and to be of any value, a minimum of 4 cycles or 16 breaths is needed.              

NADI SHODHANA:  This is a Pranayama where no ujjayi should ever be used.  Inhale by the Left Nostril, Exhale by the Right Nostril, Inhale by the Right Nostril, Exhale by the Left Nostril. 
      It is to be noted that a Pranayama can have KUMBHAKA: either after Inhalation (called ANTAH KUMBHAKA) or after Exhalation (called BAHYA KUMBHAKA)                 

SAMA VRITHI:  Sama Vrithi is a Pranayama imperatively practiced in NADI SHODHANA.  In this Pranayama, while following       the technique of Nadi Shodhana, the time allotted to Puraka, Antah Kumbhaka, Rechaka and Bahya Kumbhaka should be the same.  For eg. Puraka = Antah Kumbhaka =   Rechaka = Bahya Kumbhaka = 5".
SURYA BHEDHANA:  Once again, this Pranayama should be done only in Nadi Shodhana.  Here, the Puraka, Antah Kumbhaka and Rechaka would have a proportional time measure.  The Antah Kumbhaka should be 4 times the measure of Puraka, while that of Rechaka should be of twice the measure of Puraka.  To cite an example: Puraka = say 8", the Antah Kumbhaka = 32" while the Rechaka = 16".

           It goes without saying that a Practice session has to have a Pranayama at the beginning and one at the end, and  a minimum of 12 breaths in each.

1.     UJJAYI ANULOMA or SHITHALI are the Pranayama that is to be introduced at the start of any Practice Session.  Ujjayi Anuloma is more congenial in Autumn and Winter, whereas Shithali is better suited to Spring and Summer.  Ujjayi Anuloma removes weariness coming from excess of mental or physical work, sentimental or emotional shock, fatigue coming from improper digestion in the small intestines leading to unwholesome assimilation.  It also stabilises the mental state.  Moreover, it has the possibility of providing and maintaining continuity in the mental states obtained in different Sessions.
      SHITHALI is more a Pranayama that establishes the digestion, maintaining an `acide-base balance'.  It soothes the sense perception, has a tendency to remove the weariness of the sense organs.

      If ANTAH KUMBHAKA is more complementary to Ujjayi Anuloma, Shithali goes generally well with Bahya Kumbhaka.  In Ujjayi Anuloma, the duration of Kumbhaka should not exceed half the time of Puraka, while in Shithali, either Antah Kumbhaka or Bahya Kumbhaka should not exceed 5".
      The specificity of the 2 Pranayama is that they can be given at the beginning and or at the end of a Session.

2     UJJAYI VILOMA is a Pranayama, acting more on the nervous system, even though the practitioner finds relief in his mental state.  It soothes the nervous irritations, or excitements coming mainly from emotional, affective or sentimental overcharge in one's life.  Its action is very fast, so much so, it should be practised for a short duration say, for a continuous period of 15 days, followed by Ujjayi Anuloma which stabilises the results obtained through Ujjayi Viloma.  As the technical word Viloma indicates, the `movement' of the mind in this Pranayama is transcendental but `intensified', it is not advisable to practice Ujjayi Viloma at the end of a session, if the practitioner is to have a social life immediately after his practice.  Care should be taken in not introducing Ujjayi Viloma in case of mental depression, or in depressive tendencies.  Ujjayi Anuloma is the Pranayama for all sorts of mental depressions.
      UJJAYI PRATHILOMA acts both on the nervous systems and on the thought processes So much so, it removes all nervous excitement, bringing back to normalcy the nervous impulses, removes the interferences of superficial thought processes thereby providing a clear mental space.  We can say, that Ujjayi Prathiloma suits to those who live under such extreme emotional stress that they are unable to forget it, neither are they able to do anything else.  Once again this Pranayama is to be practised for 2 weeks, replaced by Ujjayi Anuloma.  It is to be remembered that Ujjayi Prathiloma should be practised for a minimum of 16 breaths.  It works very well in the beginning of a session.  If practiced late in the evening, it induces sleep.  If this Pranayama is introduced, care should be taken to see that Ujjayi Anuloma finds its place in the end of the session. This Pranayama is very suitable to get oneself free from the after affect of emotional shocks.

      While Bahya Kumbhaka is more suitable to Viloma, no Kumbhaka is advisable in Prathiloma.
As for NADI SHODHANA, it is always a Pranayama of the end of the session.  For convenient practice of Nadi Shodhana, one should have had some practice of Ujjayi Anuloma, Sarvanga Asana, and if possible Shirsha Asana.  The action of this Pranayama, without Kumbhaka, is not so much on the biological changes in the body.  Its action is more on the clarity of sense perception, removal of sense confusions, attentiveness of the mind.  It should not be practiced when there is nervous irritability, emotional shock, or fear of spiritual sentiments, particularly  in those who do not believe in the value of a Divine Support, or where there is excess of fatigue.  Suitable Pranayama should be practiced at first to improve one's condition before working on Nadi Shodhana.  It is always conceivable to have done either Badha Kona Asana or Maha Mudra or Paschimathana Asana as the last Asana before doing Nadi Shodhana.

3.    NADI SHODHANA with Bahya Kumbhaka influences more the mental plane.  When we talk of mental plane, we talk of the emotions (ANUBHAAVA) and sentiments (STHAAYI BHAVA), having their physical or physiological response.  A disturbed mind, is the mind whose natural functions are overtaken by emotions or sentiments.  As long as these persist, mind will not be clarified, and without a clear mind (MANASSHUDHI) it is not possible to have an insight.

      Nadi Shodhana with Bahya Kumbhaka breaks the link between the emotions, sentiments and their physiological response.  So its action is more on the interrelation between the physical mode of emotions, and the emotional or sentimental impulse.  It goes without saying that this Pranayama comes in the end of a session, that the duration of Bahya Kumbhaka should not exceed on fourth the time of Puraka, that the conditions mentioned for Nadi Shodhana (without Kumbhaka) apply here as well.
      SURYA BHEDHANA in view of the important Kumbhaka it has, can be practised only when one has the physical and mental capacity and capability to assume the Kumbhaka.  Here we come to some of the important Pranayama of Yoga.  The technique clearly shows that this Pranayama outwits the physiological basis of the respiratory system.  Yet, when well practised, does not alter the O¨-CO¨ relations, and thus does not create any adverse reaction in the chemical imbalance in the body.  Moreover this Pranayama has the possibility of maintaining the Alpha Waves at will.  If the great Yoga Masters relayed on Surya Bhedhana, it should have been because they found that it works at the root of our emotions.  A regular practice of this Pranayama provides a proper control of the emotional activities of the mind.  This needs ample preparation and constant practice of Mudras like the Viparitha Karani, Maha Mudra, Ashvini Mudra and Asanas like Badha Kona Asana, Ardha Matsyendra Asana etc.  That is to say, those that have the centre of action at the root of our emotional response -- the Naval (NAABHI).  To obtain good results, this Pranayama is to be practiced sitting, facing East.

4.    For any spiritual quest, one has to purify the mind, in a way as to free it from sentiments, that are against those of the Creator or God.  At the same time, the Home of the Soul, the Heart (HRUDAYA) should be cleared of all emotions, except those that are Divine.  This can be done only if the  outward tendencies of the sense perceptions revert towards Inward Insight (ATMA AVALOKANA).  Since the Mind follows the senses, the sentiments follow the mind, the emotions follow the sentiments, PRANA follows the emotions, and the Soul (ATMA) follows Prana, we have to work in such a way as to reverse these outward tendencies.  That is to say, as long as the sense perceptions do not look Inward, it would not be possible to bring back the Prana, the Mind and Soul into the Heart.  This is the essential role of the Pranayama of the 4th Category.                 
All the Pranayama under this heading belong to principle of Nadi Shodhana. They are always to be practised at the end of a session.  Further, they are to be followed by Nadi Shodhana with Concentration on HRUDAYA.  The practice session containing Pranayama of this category should contain Asanas like Matsya Asana, Bhujanga Asana, Dhanura Asana, Sarvanga Asana, Shirsha asana, Ardha Matsyendra Asana, Badha Kona Asana, Paschimathana Asana.  Moreover, the number of breaths used in all the Asanas and Mudras put together should be inferior to the number of breaths of all the Pranayama finding their place  in the same Session. All the Pranayama of this series should be done facing East.
      According to Hindu Tradition, the Pranayama under this category should be SAGARBHA (= Conceivable).  That is to say, during the practice of these Pranayama, the image in the Mental Space should be that of God, or a Divine Object of Contemplation, and there should be silent muttering of God's name (or a Mantra).  Non believers in God, or those not having conviction in such an entity should adopt appropriate means.  They can use a non-physical object like an unique Star, a Horizon Point or the Dark Hallow of the Early Morning Rising Sun.  In any case, the object in the mind should be beyond the Time-Space Reality.

      The SAMAVRITHI, to be effective should have a minimum of duration of 8 sec. at each phase (or 32 secs for one breath), and it is always practised in Nadi Shodhana.  This Pranayama works at the base of our Verbal Expressions.  This, in the Manifested State (VYAKTHA) is located in the Perineum (MULA), while at the Unmanifested state (AVYAKTHA) it is situated in NAABHI, considered as the Link between the Creator and Man.  From the Manifested Sound Expression, the Shabda (the sound) assumes `colour' through the emotions, which find their root at Naabhi.  (It is to be noted that the SHIRSHA or the fontanelle becomes the link between Man and the Creator, in his transcendental path).  So much so, Naabhi has a dual role:  That of linking the creator with man, and that of `shading' the manifested sound through emotions.  This manifest sound, is what is at the basis of expression--spoken or otherwise, and when used through words, becomes language or as the Indian Psychology calls ALAMKARA (= Aesthetic Language).  All our reactions -- sentimental or emotional --  raise from the interactions or the disequilibrium amongst these various localisations.  As long as a perfect balance is not acquired between these, man is subject to emotional disturbances and they will not provide him Peace of Mind (CHITHA SHANTI).  SAMAVRITHI PRANAYAMA acts in this direction.  Its main centre of action is at Naabhi, and its aim is to delay the emotional activities, a delay sufficient for the mind not to follow the emotions.  The actions of this Pranayama is not felt immediately, but in our daily life.
      It is imperative to have had long practice of the Pranayama of the 3rd Category, before putting into practice those indicated in this last category.  Moreover, this Pranayama is efficacious only if the mind is in concentration with some Vital Points like Naasagra, Kanta, Hrudaya, Kurma Nadi, Naabhi.  The Points to be chosen depends on the psychological constitution and emotional set up of the student.  This Pranayama has a good complementary if Ujjayi Anuloma 16 breaths is introduced at the beginning of a session.  Similarly, Samavrithi is not to be practiced when one is under an emotional stress or in a depressive mood.  Also, it is advisable not to practice this Pranayama when one is not used to Concentrate on Vital Points.  The above mentioned actions of this Pranayama reside mainly on the  Concentration Points introduced (SAGARBHA PRANAYAMA).  If practiced as a respiratory exercise, it has every chance of bringing to surface emotions with their physiological response.  The importance of this Pranayama in Yoga is to be measured from the fact that it is one the very few Pranayama with Kumbhaka as long as Rechaka  that the Yogic Literature describe. 

      We now come to the Pranayama that has already been reviewed under the 3rd Category (SURYA BHEDHANA).  Technically speaking, this Pranayama is the same as the one we studied before.  But in this category the aim is to render Prana its natural and original function of being in close association with ATMA, and to show ATMA the path of the Supreme soul (PARAMATHMA) or the Creator.  (It is here that we understand the meaning of Prana Aayama: extending Prana towards the Creator).  In this Surya Bhedhana, concentration is an essential factor.  The concentration during Puraka (Inhalation) is used in such a way as to centralise all the mental faculties including the sensorial ones in HRUDAYA, to stabilise them in HRUDAYA during Antah Kumbhaka, so that cleared of all influences with regard to the external world, the mind reflects  itself, during Rechaka, its Original Nature of revealing the qualities of Atma.
      This Pranayama is also called ABHYANTARA VRITHI (or the Inner Movement), because the Sense and the Mental activities instead of going outward, turn inwards.  In this Pranayama, the Concentration Points applied are: Naasagra, Bhrumadhya, Lalaata, Kanta, Kurma Nadi and Hrudaya.
      Yet another Pranayama, which should be practised facing East.  The effect of this Pranayama, is increased if followed by a Prayer.  It would not be a repetition, if it is said that a Practice Session having this Pranayama should have only the Asanas and Mudra as is indicated under Sama Vrithi.  Moreover, the only occasion when Nadi Shodhana, can be introduced as a Pranayama at the beginning of the session, is when Surya Bhedhana as mentioned here finds its place in the end of the session, and the Asanas and Mudra are those that are mentioned under Sama Vrithi.

      Here are but some indications for the application of Pranayama, and it is beyond doubt that if properly used, under the keen observation and guidance of a Teacher, any student of Yoga will find the real value and benefit that Yoga Stands for.